There are two basic attitudes in life that are integrated in everyone’s behavior. The participative attitude in which the individual is integrated with the environment and the observational attitude where individuals are witnessing the reality they are living in.
Depending on the situation it is necessary to have one or the other attitude. Observational attitudes are part of the over-adaptive behavior of individuals and require the use of dualistic thinking processes in order to separate reality from the observer.
This approach is a problem thinking approach where reality is separated from the individual. It drives to human non-conscious over-adaptation: domination, submissiveness and opposition when it is not integrated with a solution driven approach.
Participative attitudes are necessary for the adaptive behavior of individuals. It requires unicist thinking in order to manage the conjunction of the elements of reality including the integration of observers.
This approach is solution thinking driven. It drives individuals to influence the environment while being influenced by it.
Unicist thinking cannot be managed by observers; an adaptive behavior is necessary. But it integrates both the integrative approach and the dualistic approach in order to manage the solution thinking approach with the problem thinking approach.
Wisdom is a paradigmatic result of the use of a double dialectical thinking approach and erudition is a paradigmatic case of an observational approach.
Access a synthesis on the “Discovery of the Unicist Ontology of External Freedom” that is available at the Scientific Dissemination Program. You will find there other syntheses that might be of your interest: https://www.unicist.net/partner-news/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ontology_external_freedom.pdf
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NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in complexity science research and became a global decentralized world-class research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. http://www.unicist.org