It is based on establishing the natural organization model that corresponds to a business. The organization by objects and roles allows organizing the business processes as a unified field to achieve the goals established by a strategy.
The object driven organization is the adaptive model that allows transforming strategies into an object driven architecture. It is a natural organization for institutionalized businesses.
Institutionalization fosters, on the one hand, timeless strategies in order to ensure the permanence of a business and, on the other hand, short-term strategies to adapt to the conjunctures of the environment.
The final objective is to transform a business strategy into a business organization emulating the organization of nature. Nature, and any complex adaptive system, is organized by objects. This is evident when one sees the ecosystem or the organs of a human body.
Integrating Objects in Business Processes
In the field of business, the object driven organization is based on the design of the business processes, integrating business objects to achieve the strategic objectives that have been established.
Objects are adaptive systems that have a concept that defines their purposes, have a value generating function and a quality assurance system that makes them reliable.
Only people who manage a process can use objects in a meaningful way. The example of an autopilot in an airplane makes this evident. An autopilot has limits where its use is functional and the pilot needs to reassume the process when these limits are being exceeded.
The Ontogenetic Map of the UODO
The goals that have been defined as possible by a strategic design are the input for the implementation of an object driven organization. These goals include a qualitative and quantitative definition in order to maintain the adaptability of the system.
The maximal strategy of the strategic objectives influences the roles that need to be defined and the minimum strategy defines the efficiency of the system that needs to be achieved.
The business processes drive the maximal strategy of this model while the business objects sustain the minimum strategy.
The Maximal Strategy
The purpose of the maximal strategy is the development of an adaptive system to manage the processes that are needed to achieve the goals that have been established. UODO is a universal adaptive model that applies to any institutionalized activity to produce results.
When the purpose of developing an adaptive system to manage the processes has been clarified, it becomes necessary to establish the roles that need to be organized to deal with the efficacy of the business processes.
After the roles have been defined, it becomes possible to define the efficiency of the processes, which implies the organization of a system that works as the catalyst of the UODO.
This model needs to be based on the definition of roles and an efficient system to sustain the adaptiveness of the maximal strategy.
The Minimum Strategy
The minimum strategy of the UODO is given by the use of business objects that sustain the processes. The first step to be developed is the definition of the driving objects that allow the achievement of the goals.
After the driving processes have been specified, it is necessary to define the inhibiting objects to be used to focus on the processes in order to ensure the functionality of the results.
Inhibiting objects are installed to define the limits of what is acceptable or not. They allow individuals to focus the energy on what needs to be done.
When the inhibitors have been defined, it is necessary to install entropy inhibiting objects that ensure that the limits of the functionality defined by the processes are not exceeded. These entropy inhibiting objects are the entropy inhibitors of the model and sustain the functionality of the driving objects installed in the processes.
The object driven organization can be considered complete when the business objects are installed and work within the business processes that have been organized to fulfill the maximal and minimum strategies.
This process requires making destructive and non-destructive pilot tests to confirm the validity of the organization.
There are different levels of maturity of the UODO
- Level 1) Conjuncture Focused
- Level 2) Productivity Focused
- Level 3) Quality Assurance Focused
- Level 4) Results Focused
- Level 5) Improvement Focused
Level 1) Conjuncture Focused
This level of organization is focused on solving the problems of the conjuncture. It is a short-term organization that is necessarily driven by the personal qualifications of the participants in a business process.
Each conjuncture is managed simultaneously as a threat and as an opportunity. There are no established roles for the participants. The relationships are managed based on subjective influences and the goal is to survive or take advantage of a situation.
There are no strategic goals established. This level of organization is driven by power and materialistic needs. This level cannot organize by objects and its evolution is basically driven by heroes.
The adaptive capacity of this organization is defined by the adaptive capacity of its members.
This level of organization cannot evolve to a superior level unless the organization is re-founded.
Level 2) Productivity Focused
This level of UODO is focused on improving the productivity. It organizes by objects in order to increase productivity and minimize costs.
Its main goal is to minimize the time of processes. It is based on installing business objects in functional organization processes in order to ensure their functionality and increase the speed of execution.
The timing of the processes is focused on the productive processes. The adaptive capacity of this organization is based on the use of mathematical tools that allow establishing patterns that are used to adapt to the environment.
This level of UODO is functional for massive production processes that need a low level of adaptiveness to the environment.
These organizations empower their adaptive capacity by the use of reliability systems and objective performance management systems. It allows managing stable markets and is based on operational strategies.
This level evolves to a superior level when the productivity that has been achieved allows managing a price leadership.
Level 3) Quality Assurance Focused
This level of UODO includes the preceding level and includes a quality assurance focus that allows introducing adaptive automation in the processes.
This adaptive automation includes a quality assurance system that allows establishing entropy inhibiting objects that avoid the loss of energy and the loss of the focus of the organization.
It is based on integrating the productivity of the preceding level with the quality of the processes. It includes the goals established by the strategic plan.
This level includes an incipient level of client orientation which drives the objectives of the quality assurance. It is natural for organizations that have a non-influential strategy, which requires influencing the environment through competitive prices and the quality of the products and services.
This level of UODO is based on a strong bureaucratic organization model compensated with an organization by objectives that allows members of the organization to participate in the establishment of such objectives. It is functional to operate in stable markets.
This level of organization evolves to a superior level when the quality and productivity of a company are the standard of the market or match the standards.
Level 4) Results Focused
This level of UODO includes the preceding level and is based on establishing a performance management system that allows monitoring the results of the company, the market and the shareholders.
This level establishes a strong focus on the market needs in order to ensure results. This focus implies establishing an efficient system that sustains the institutionalization of the company.
The people who participate in this company need to follow the strict rules of efficiency of the system, which need to be adaptive. This allows empowering the organization in order to manage the specific strategies that have been defined.
The level of adaptiveness is high and managed by the system. The system uses adaptive interfaces to manage the adaptive aspects of the business.
This level of UODO is based on a matrix organization that allows integrating the needs of the products and services with those of the market. It allows expanding markets when the organization has a dominant position.
This level of organization evolves to a superior level when the company establishes a dominant position in the market.
Level 5) Improvement Focused
This level of UODO includes the preceding level and is the most adaptive and effective type of organization. It is based on having an evolutionary model based on object driven process improvements.
Such improvements allow taking advantage of all the objects installed at the different levels improving them based on the changes that are needed to better adapt to the market and taking advantage of the new technologies that are available.
It requires integrating the non-adaptive aspects of the business that need to be upgraded in their efficiency with the adaptive aspects that need to become effective based on their efficacy.
The level of adaptiveness is adequate to the needs of the market, shareholders and stakeholders and its most significant characteristic is the organization by roles working as interdependent units.
The organization by roles empowers adaptiveness and allows optimizing processes. It requires having the necessary future scenarios in order to be able to plan long-term adaptive strategies. It also requires having established a universal strategic plan.
This superior level of organization needs to have corruption inhibitors in order to avoid its degradation.
Some considerations on objects
Objects are productive adaptive units that have a concept, an added value, the necessary quality assurance and a methodology to ensure the minimum strategy. To imagine an object please consider an automatic pilot in an airplane. It can be considered a “paradigmatic” object.
We would like to make a clarification of the difference between objects and things.
Objects only exist within a process. When they are not part of a process they are things.
Objects produce an added value for someone in the process. When they do not produce added value they are things. Things can be such in some conditions and objects in others. The definition of an “object” is functional to a value that needs to be achieved.
For example, a commercial car is an object if there is a driver, if not it is a thing. But if it is a collection car it is an object for the owner and for those who appreciate its value. For those who do not, it is just a thing.
In the world of abstract objects a rumor is an object if it achieves the expected value. News is an object if it has a use for the one who receives it.
That is why it has to be clarified that objects depend on a given functionality within a process. A stone might be an object if it has a use, if not, it is just a thing.
That is why only people who have a sound knowledge on a process can design the objects that are part of the process.
In order to reuse objects in other homologous processes it becomes necessary to have an expert knowledge. Without it no homologies can be understood.
There are different types of objects:
- Driving Objects: To drive processes
- Catalyzing Objects: To accelerate processes
- Entropy Inhibiting Objects: To inhibit the entropy of business processes
- Inhibiting Objects: To inhibit dysfunctional events in a business
- Gravitational Objects: To influence the results of processes
Personal Roles as Objects
Only people who accept that their value is in the role they play in a work process are able to design object driven organizations.
People who just develop their work by executing tasks can use objects as part of their work process but cannot lead these processes.
A personal role identifies the functional identity that an individual has and that the environment expects s/he will fulfill.
The personal role becomes an object when an individual truly assumed the full responsibility of what is expected in an adaptive environment.
The personal role of an individual considered as an object is what makes such individual be part of an adaptive environment.
The assumption of this personal role working as an object includes providing an added value to the environment, having objective aspects that generate the added value and subjective aspects to sustain the subjective value that is provided.
Over-adaptive environments do not accept the existence of roles. They transform the functionality of an individual’s role into subjectivism and duties that are managed by the manipulation of illusions, fears and guilt.
Personal-role objects have, like any other objects, a concept, an added value and a quality assurance process. An individual has the possibility of structuring her/his role or follow the rules of over-adaptation.
Personal roles as objects make people transparent, reliable, accountable and respectable. The objectification of roles allows individuals to exert their subjective approach without falling into subjectivism.
Individuals have multiple roles depending on the environment in which they act. From this point of view, an individual who is alone and has no contact with the external environment, has no personal role. The integration with the environment is what makes the personal roles exist as objects.
Every object has a level of energy that defines its critical mass. This energy is defined by the functional aesthetics of the role’s added value, the personal influence an individual has and the credibility of the value proposal.
The Structure of Personal Roles as Objects
Personal roles work as objects in adaptive environments because they allow integrating groups knowing the functionality of each member, which permits building synergy and establishing driving, inhibiting and entropy inhibiting functions.
The acknowledgement of these roles also allows adding external functions to the group to provide catalyzing and gravitational functions to accelerate actions and ensure their consistency.
The driver of the personal-role object is the use value of the role. It is part of the subjective value, which is the purpose of the function and provides the concept of the universal definition of an object.
It requires that this personal-role object be considered a reference value with the necessary timing, which implies synchronicity, acceleration and speed in order to provide value when it is needed.
The objective aspects cover the adding value function of an object and are homologous to the ontogenetic map of architecture (defined by the concepts of Utility, Aesthetics and Solidity).
The purpose of the objective aspects is to provide Utility, the active function is a completing function (Aesthetics) and the Solidity is provided by the reliable delivery of what is expected.
The subjective aspects of personal-role objects provide the trustability of the role, which defines its respectability. Predictability is the first step to earn respectability. The second step is ensuring reliability, which provides the entropy inhibitor that ensures the functionality of personal roles.
There are five categories of personal roles that define different levels of influence in an adaptive environment:
- Level 1) Subjective Roles
- Level 2) Operational Roles
- Level 3) Control Roles
- Level 4) Constructive Roles
- Level 5) Adaptive Roles
Level 1) Subjective Roles
This category of roles is based on the acceptance that every individual does what s/he can do. This hinders the development of institutionalized processes and is based on a task driven organization that cannot deal with adaptive environments.
The participants need to be accepted “as is” and the influence, within an organization where subjective roles are accepted, is based on personal relationships.
These organizations cannot deal with an object driven organization because they cannot accept the management of processes with pre-installed objects. This type of organization is natural in over-adaptive environments.
Level 2) Operational Roles
These are roles that are defined to manage the operational aspects of businesses. These roles are based on the “know how” that people have and use operational objects that allow them to save energy to manage the business processes.
This category is based on assuming roles based on known cause-effect relationships. Predictability is the core value of these individuals, which requires that people who assumed this role be fully dependable on their actions, which implies that they need to have a full commitment with the objectives included in their function. The respectability of this role is centrally given by the client orientation of the people who assume it.
The individuals of this level evolve to a superior role when they are naturally focused on improving the processes based on the feedback from the environment. They remain in this role when they fulfill their objectives without having the innovation capacity to improve. They manage the operational aspects of object driven organizations.
Level 3) Control Roles
This role includes the knowledge required by the preceding role. This role implies having assumed the responsibility for managing operational functions in order to improve results.
People who assume this role need to have the operational concepts of the operation in order to be able to ensure the reliability of the processes. The respectability of this role is based on having the capacity of leading the operation based on performance standards without generating conflicts.
Control roles require having a sound knowledge of the cause-effect relationships of the operational aspects of the business processes that are involved and of the objectives that need to be achieved.
The individuals of this level evolve to a superior role when they are able to integrate operational objectives with strategic objectives. They remain in this role when they are unable to assume risks. They manage the performance management aspects of the object driven organizations.
Level 4) Constructive Roles
This role includes the knowledge required by the preceding roles. It requires that the individuals have an architectural approach to business, which means being able to understand the structure of the business processes as a unified field.
This is required in order to design and build business processes and business objects. Their main responsibility is to develop the necessary organization of the processes that are needed to achieve the established goals.
They need to be able to design trustable processes that include objects and the quality assurance processes for the object driven organization. To assume the responsibility of these roles it is necessary to have the fundamental and the technical-analytical knowledge of the functions included.
The individuals of this level evolve to a superior level when they are able to forecast the evolution of the business and of the necessary processes. They remain at this level when they cannot assume the risk of managing adaptive processes. They manage the architectural aspects of the object driven organizations.
Level 5) Adaptive Roles
This role includes the knowledge required by the preceding roles. This role implies managing the dynamics of the business in order to develop strategies and assume the responsibility of the conceptual design of the processes.
This role requires that individuals be able to manage the trade-offs among the needs of the customers, of the shareholders and of the stakeholders. They need to manage the use value of the value propositions, the competitive positioning and the opportunities of the market.
Their main responsibility is given by the understanding of the market, the integration of technologies and the organization of the necessary manpower to achieve the objectives. They are fully responsible for defining the strategies for growth.
This role includes the participation in the institutions of the environment that influence the business. They need to manage the unified field of the business. This role is the highest level in organizations. Individuals succeed at this level as long as they are able to guide the adaptiveness of the organization in the environment.